Archives for English Grammar

General Awareness in Hindi (Current Affairs in Hindi) 11

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General Awareness in Hindi (Current Affairs in Hindi)

सौजन्यः श्री रवि यादव

GST rates for various items

0% GST Rates Itemsगेहूँ, चावल, अन्य अनाज, आटा, मैदा, बेसन, चूड़ा, मुरमुरे, खोई, ब्रेड, गुड़, दूध, दही, लस्सी, खुला पनीर, अंडे, मीट-मछली, शहद, ताजे फल, सब्जियाँ, प्रसाद, नमक, सेंधा/काला नमक, कुमकुम, बिंदी, सिंदूर, चूड़ियाँ, पान के पत्ते, स्टाम्प पेपर, कोर्ट के कागजात, डाक विभाग के पोस्टकार्ड/लिफाफे, किताबें, स्लेट-पेंसिल, चॉक, समाचार पत्र-पत्रिकाएँ, मैप, एटलस, ग्लोब, हैंडलूम, मिट्टी के बर्तन, खेती के लिए प्रयोग किये जाने वाले औजार, बीज, बिना ब्रांड के ऑर्गेनिक खाद, सभी प्रकार के गर्भनिरोधक, ब्लड, सुनने की मशीन।
5% GST Rates Itemsब्रांडेड अनाज, ब्रांडेड आटा, ब्रांडेड शहद, चीनी, चाय, कॉफी, मिठाइयाँ, खाद्य तेल, स्किम्ड मिल्क पाउडर, बच्चों के मिल्क फूड, रस्क, पिज्जा ब्रेड, टोस्ट ब्रेड, पेस्ट्री मिक्स, प्रोसेस्ड/फ्रोजन फल-सब्जियाँ, पैकिंग वाला पनीर, ड्राई फिश, न्यूजप्रिंट, ब्रोशर, लीफलेट, राशन का केरोसिन, रसोई गैस, झाडू, क्रीम, मसाले, जूस, साबूदाना, जड़ी-बूटी, लौंग, दालचीनी, जायफल, जीवन रक्षक दवाएँ, स्टेंट, ब्लड वैक्सीन, हेपेटाइटिस डायग्नोसिस किट, ड्रग फॉर्मूलेशन, क्रच, व्हीलचेयर, ट्रायसाइकिल, लाइफबोट, हैंडपंप और उसके पार्ट्स, सोलर वाटर हीटर, रिन्यूएबल एनर्जी डिवाइस, ईंट, मिट्टी के टाइल्स, साइकिल-रिक्शा के टायर, कोयला, लिग्नाइट, कोक, कोल गैस, सभी ओर (अयस्क) और कंसेंट्रेट, राशन का केरोसिन, रसोई गैस।
12% GST Rates Itemsनमकीन, भुजिया, बटर ऑयल, घी, मोबाइल फोन, ड्राई फ्रूट, फ्रूट और वेजिटेबल जूस, सोया मिल्क जूस और दूध युक्त ड्रिंक्स, प्रोसेस्ड/फ्रोजन मीट-मछली, अगरबत्ती, कैंडल, आयुर्वेदिक-यूनानी-सिद्धा-होम्यो दवाएं, गॉज, बैंडेज, प्लास्टर, ऑर्थोपेडिक उपकरण, टूथ पाउडर, सिलाई मशीन और इसकी सुई, बायो गैस, एक्सरसाइज बुक, क्राफ्ट पेपर, पेपर बॉक्स, बच्चों की ड्रॉइंग और कलर बुक, प्रिंटेड कार्ड, चश्मे का लेंस, पेंसिल शार्पनर, छुरी, कॉयर मैट्रेस, एलईडी लाइट, किचन और टॉयलेट के सेरेमिक आइटम, स्टील, ताँबे और एल्यूमीनियम के बर्तन, इलेक्ट्रिक वाहन, साइकिल और पार्ट्स, खेल के सामान, खिलौने वाली साइकिल, कार और स्कूटर, आर्ट वर्क, मार्बल/ग्रेनाइट ब्लॉक, छाता, वाकिंग स्टिक, फ्लाईएश की ईंटें, कंघी, पेंसिल, क्रेयॉन।
18% GST Rates Itemsहेयर ऑयल, साबुन, टूथपेस्ट, कॉर्न फ्लेक्स, पेस्ट्री, केक, जैम-जेली, आइसक्रीम, इंस्टैंट फूड, शुगर कन्फेक्शनरी, फूड मिक्स, सॉफ्ट ड्रिंक्स कंसेंट्रेट, डायबेटिक फूड, निकोटिन गम, मिनरल वॉटर, हेयर ऑयल, साबुन, टूथपेस्ट, कॉयर मैट्रेस, कॉटन पिलो, रजिस्टर, अकाउंट बुक, नोटबुक, इरेजर, फाउंटेन पेन, नैपकिन, टिश्यू पेपर, टॉयलेट पेपर, कैमरा, स्पीकर, प्लास्टिक प्रोडक्ट, हेलमेट, कैन, पाइप, शीट, कीटनाशक, रिफ्रैक्टरी सीमेंट, बायोडीजल, प्लास्टिक के ट्यूब, पाइप और घरेलू सामान, सेरेमिक-पोर्सिलेन-चाइना से बनी घरेलू चीजें, कांच की बोतल-जार-बर्तन, स्टील के ट-बार-एंगल-ट्यूब-पाइप-नट-बोल्ट, एलपीजी स्टोव, इलेक्ट्रिक मोटर और जेनरेटर, ऑप्टिकल फाइबर, चश्मे का फ्रेम, गॉगल्स, विकलांगों की कार।
28% GST Rates Itemsकस्टर्ड पाउडर, इंस्टैंट कॉफी, चॉकलेट, परफ्यूम, शैंपू, ब्यूटी या मेकअप के सामान, डियोड्रेंट, हेयर डाइ/क्रीम, पाउडर, स्किन केयर प्रोडक्ट, सनस्क्रीन लोशन, मैनिक्योर/पैडीक्योर प्रोडक्ट, शेविंग क्रीम, रेजर, आफ्टरशेव, लिक्विड सोप, डिटरजेंट, एल्युमीनियम फ्वायल, टीवी, फ्रिज, वाशिंग मशीन, वैक्यूम क्लीनर, डिश वाशर, इलेक्ट्रिक हीटर, इलेक्ट्रिक हॉट प्लेट, प्रिंटर, फोटो कॉपी और फैक्स मशीन, लेदर प्रोडक्ट, विग, घड़ियां, वीडियो गेम कंसोल, सीमेंट, पेंट-वार्निश, पुट्टी, प्लाई बोर्ड, मार्बल/ग्रेनाइट (ब्लॉक नहीं), प्लास्टर, माइका, स्टील पाइप, टाइल्स और सेरामिक्स प्रोडक्ट, प्लास्टिक की फ्लोर कवरिंग और बाथ फिटिंग्स, कार-बस-ट्रक के ट्यूब-टायर, लैंप, लाइट फिटिंग्स, एल्युमिनियम के डोर-विंडो फ्रेम, इनसुलेटेड वायर-केबल।
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Learn English Grammar 14

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Learn English Grammar

(Courtsey: Grammar by Shri D.N. Basu)

Everybody should learn English grammar as English grammar teaches us to speak and write the English language correctly.

The Pronoun

Classification of Pronouns

Pronouns are divided into four kinds viz. 1. Personal Pronouns, 2. Demonstrative Pronouns, 3. Interrogative Pronouns and 4. Relative Pronouns.

Personal Pronouns1. Simple – I, you, we
2. Reflexive (or Compound) – myself, yourself, ourselves
Demonstrative Pronouns1. Definite – he, she, it; they
2. Indefinite – one, none, any, some
3. Distributive – each, either, neither
4. Reflexive – himself, herself, oneself
Interrogative Pronounswho, which, what
Relative Pronounswho, which, what, that

1. Personal Pronouns

Personal Pronouns are used for nouns to denote persons who wpeak or who are spokent to. These are “I” and “you”.

“I” is the pronoun of the first person, because it represents the speaker. “You” is the pronoun of the second person, because it represents the person addressed. Personal Pronouns hve no distinction of gender. They are thus declined –

1st person nominative case – I (singular number), we (singular number)
1st person possessive case – my, mine (singular number), our, ours (singular number)
1st person objective case – me (singular number), us (singular number)

2nd person nominative case – you (singular number), you (singular number)
2nd person possessive case – your, yours (singular number), your, yours (singular number)
2nd person objective case – you (singular number), you (singular number)

“We” is used in the following places –

1. When one speaks for several (as the foreman of a jury); as, ‘we find the prisoner guilty’; ‘we welcome you’.

2. Royal personages use “we” instead of “I”; as, ‘we (Queen Victoria) hold ouselves bound to the native subjects of India by the same obligations of duty which bind us to all our other subjects etc.’

3. Editors use “we” with reference to themselves; as, ‘we think the Government is right in passing such a law’.

4. For mankind in general: ‘we are weak and fallible’.

“You” is used both in the singular and in the plural number; as ‘you are a good boy’; ‘you are all idlers’.

“You” is sometimes used indefinitely for “one”; as, ‘you cannot have blood out of a stone’.

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Learn English Grammar 13

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Learn English Grammar

(Courtsey: Grammar by Shri D.N. Basu)

Everybody should learn English grammar as English grammar teaches us to speak and write the English language correctly.

Case of Noun (continued)

Rules for forming the Possessive Case with -‘s

1. The Possessive Case of a singular noun is generally formed by adding an apostrophe (‘) and -s to the Nominative; as, Ram – Ram’s; man – man’s.

2. The Possessive Case of a plural noun ending in -s is formed by adding only an apostrophe (‘); as, boys – boys’. But if the plural does not end in -s, both the apostrophe (‘) and -s must be used; as, men’s, children’s.

3. To get rid of too many hissing sounds, -s is sometimes omitted; as conscience’ sake; goodness’ sake; Jewess’ eye; Moses’ Law.

But the following are also used –

Bass’s ale, Burns’s poetry, St. James’s Church; Douglas’s castle, mercy’s sake.

4. When there are two or more separate nouns in the Possissive case, the suffix -‘s is added to the last word when joint possession is meant; as, Ram and John’s firm.

But when separate possession is meant, the possessive suffix sould be added to each noun; as, Ram’s and John’s firms, i.e. separate firms; the king’s and the duke’s forces, i.e. two distinct forces.

5. Compound nouns and names consisting of several words, form their Possessive by adding -‘s to the last word; as, father-in-law’s house; ‘the Government of India’s orders was received late’; Alfred the Great’s tomb.

(a) When a noun in the Possessive cas is followed by another noun in apposition to it, the possessive suffix is add to the noun mentioned last; as ‘I went to Mr. Bose the lawyer’s house’; ‘he has sold his brother Hari’s book’.

(b) When many explanatory words follow a name, the -‘s is generally affixed to the name, if the governing noun is understood; but if the governing noun is expressed, “of” should be used for -‘s; as ‘Iwent to Mr. Lahiri’s, the great and well-known bookseller’; ‘I went to the firm of Mr. Lahiri, the great and well-kown bookseller’.

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Learn English Grammar 12

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Learn English Grammar

(Courtsey: Grammar by Shri D.N. Basu)

Everybody should learn English grammar as English grammar teaches us to speak and write the English language correctly.

Case of Noun

Case is the form of a noun or a pronoun which showes its relation to some other word in a sentence.

1. The Nominative Case is the form of a word when it is the subject of a verb.

Examples – The Nominative Case is found by asking the question “who?” or “what?” before the verb. ‘Ram laughs’ – who laughs? – “Ram”; therefore “Ram” is in the Nominative Case. ‘The pen is lost’ – what is lost? – “the pen”; hence “pen” is in the Nominative Case. So ‘beggars have no right to be choosers’.

2. The Possessive Case is the form of a word when it is used with a noun and indicates possession.

Examples – The Possive Case can be found by asking the question “whose?”. ‘Gopal’s pencil’ – whose pencil? – “Gopal’s”; therefore “Gopal’s is in the Possessive Case. So ‘a man’s wealth may become his enemy’.

3. The Objective Case is the form of a word when it is governed by a transitive verb or a preposition.

Examples – The Objective Case is found by asking the question “whom?” or “what?” after the verb. ‘Karim beat Hari’ – whom did Karim beat? – “Hari”; hence “Hari” is in the Objective Case. ‘John buys a book’ – what does John buy? – “a book”; therefore “book” is in the Objective Case. So ‘a full purse never lacks friends’; ‘sit by Ram’.

Some Transitive verbs have two objects; as ‘give him an inch and he’ll take an ell’; ‘send me a book’; ‘make me a kite’. Objects of things, as “inch”, “book”, and “kite”, being directly affected by verbs “give”, “send” and “make”, are called Direct Objects; and objects of persons, as “him” and “me” being indirectly affected by those verbs, are called Indirect Objects (or Dative Cases).

4. The Vovative Case (or Nominative of Address) is the form of a noun when the person (or thing) is addressed.

Examples – The Vocative Case can be found by asking the question “who or what is addressed?”. ‘Come here, John’ – who is addressed? – “John”; hence “John” is in the Vocative Case. ‘Death, where is thy sting?’ – what is addressed? – “death”; so “death” is in the Vocative Case.

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Learn English Grammar 11

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Learn English Grammar

(Courtsey: Grammar by Shri D.N. Basu)

Everybody should learn English grammar as English grammar teaches us to speak and write the English language correctly.

Gender of Noun (continued)

There are three ways of distinguishing the Gender.

1. By different Words.

MasculineFeminineMasculineFeminine
bachelormaid, spinsterhorse, stallionmare
boarsowhusbandwife
boygirlkingqueen
brothersisterlordlady
buckdoemalefemale
bull or oxcowmanwoman
bollock, steerheifermilter (fish)spawner
cockhennephewniece
coltfillypapamamma
dogbitchram, wetherewe
dronebeesirmadam
earlcountesssire (a horse)dam
fathermotherslovenslut
friar, monknunsondaughter
gentlemanladystaghind
hartroeuncleaunt

2. By different terminations

(i) The following are made Feminine by adding -ess to the Masculine form –

author, baron, count, giant, God, heir, host, jew, lion, mayor, patron, peer, poet, priest, prince, prior, prophet, shepherd, viscount

(ii) By adding -ess irregularly –

abbot – abb-ess; duke – duch-ess; emperor – empr-ess; governor – govern-ess; lad – lass; master (teacher) – mistr-ess; master (boy) – miss; Mr. – Mrs.; murderer – murder-ess; sorcerer – sorcer-ess.

(iii) by adding -ess after omitting the last vowel –

ambassador – ambassadr-ess; actor – actr-ess; beneractor – beneractr-ess; conductor – conductr-ess; director – directr-ess; hunter – huntr-ess; instructer – instructr-ess; negro – negr-ess; porter – portr-ess; protector – protectr-ess; songster – songstr-ess; tempter – temptr-ess; tiger – tigr-ess; traitor – tratr-ess.

(iv) By other endings –

administrator – administratrix; executor – executrix; prosecutor – prosecutrix; proprietor – proprietrix or proprietr-ess; hero – heroine; infant – infanta; sultan – sultana; fox – vixen.

3. By affixing or Prefixing a wrod.

(i) By affixing a word indicating male or female –

beggar-man – beggar woman; foster-father – foster-mother; god-father – god-mother; grand-father – grand-mother; land-lord – land-lady; milk-man – milk-maid; pea-cock – pea-hen; step-father – step-mother; step-son – step-daughter, washer-man – washer-woman.

(ii) By prefixing a word indicating male or female –

bull-calf – cow-calf; he-wolf – she-wolf; he-bear – she-bear; he-goat – she-goat; male-servant – female-servant.

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Learn English Grammar 10

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Learn English Grammar

(Courtsey: Grammar by Shri D.N. Basu)

Everybody should learn English grammar as English grammar teaches us to speak and write the English language correctly.

Number of Noun (continued)

Some nouns have two plurals with separate meanings –

SingularPlural-1MeaningPlural-2Meaning
beefbeefskinds of beef-meatbeevesoxen
brotherbrotherssons of the same parentsbrethrenpersons of the same community
clothclothskinds or pieces of clothclothesgarments
diediesstamps for coiningdicesmall cubes for gaming
fishfishtaken collectivelyfishestaken separately
geniusgeniusesmen of great abilitygeniispirits
indexindexestables of contents of booksindicessigns in Algebra
peaoeasseparate seedspeasethe species, i.e. when quantity is meant
sailsailships; as, ‘a fleet of ten sail’sailscanvases; as, ‘that ship has five sails’
shotshotthe number of ballsshotsthe number of times fired
staffstaffsdepartments in armystaveswalking sticks

Plural with Numerals – Nouns expressing measure, number and weight, when preceded by numerals, are used in the plural without -s; as, ‘a ten-rupee note’; ‘a four-year child’; ‘a three-foot rule’; ‘an eight-day clock’; ‘a four-wheel carriage’.

Some nouns have the singular form in both numbers; as, ‘three pice’; ‘these sheep’; ‘several deer’.

The names of certain sciences ending in “-ics” are plural in form but singular in use; as, Acoustics, Mathematics, Hydrostatics, Mechanics, Ethics, Conics, etc.; ‘Optics is the science of visions’.

Some nouns have no singular –

aborigines, annals, bellows, billiards, bowes, dregs, embers, entrails, environs, intestines, measles, odds, pantaloons, pincers, proceeds, scales, scissors, shears, snuffers, thanks, tongs, trousers, wages.

“Corps”, “series”, “species”, “means”, “amends” are used in both numbers.

Mountain chains and groups or islands are used in the plural; as, ‘the Himalayas are higher than the Apls or the Andes’; ‘the Philippines are to the south of China.’

Some Collective Nouns have no separate plural form; as, aristocracy, artillery, cattle, foot, furniture, horse, issue, mankind, nobility, offspring, peasantry, people, perfumery, poultry, scenery, tenantry.

Gender of Noun

Gender is that form of the noun which shows whether what is spoken of is male, female or neither.

The Masculine Gender is applied to the names of male animals; as, man, dog.

The Feminine Gender is applied to the names of female animals; as woman, bitch.

The Neuter Gender is applied to the names of lifeless objects; as, watch, pen. Inferior animals are classed under the Neuter Gender.

Note – Collective Nouns are of Neuter Gender, though they denote collections of male and female sexes; as, ‘the club held its third meeting yesterday’.

Material and Abstract Nouns are also of Neuter Gender as they denote neither male nor female.

The Common Gender is applied to words that signify both, male and female; as –

child – son or daughter; deer – tart or roe; foal – colt or filly; fowl – cocks or hen; horse – stallion or mare; parent – father or mother; pig – young boar or sow; sheep – ram or ewe; sovereign – king or queen; spouse – husband or wife.

Other words of this class are – baby, bird, citizen, cousin, dove, enemy, friend, infant, monarch, mouse, orphan, person, pupil, relation, servant etc.

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Learn English Grammar 9

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Learn English Grammar

(Courtsey: Grammar by Shri D.N. Basu)

Everybody should learn English grammar as English grammar teaches us to speak and write the English language correctly.

Rules for forming Plural (continued)

5. The following nouns form their plurals irregularly –

child-children; dormouse-dormice; foot-feet; goose-geese; louse-lice; man-men; mouse-mice; Mr.-messrs; Mrs. (madam)-mesdames; ox-oxen; tooth-teeth.

6. In compound nouns the sign of plural is generally put on the principal word; as book-cases, passers-by, sons-in-law, lookers-on, cousins-german.

Some compound nouns have both the words inflected; as, men-servants, women-servants, knights-templars, lords-justices, lords-bishops, lords-lieutenants, customs-duties. (“Man-servants” and “woman-servants” are also found.)

7. Compound nouns ending in “-man” change “-man” into “-men” in the plural; as seaman-seamen; woman-women. Other words are –

Alderman, Chairman, Clergyman, Coachman, Dutchman, Englishman, Footman, Frenchman, Statesman, Washerman, Workman, Yeoman

But the following nouns take only -s in the plural –

Brahman; German; Leman; Mussalman; Norman; Ottoman; Talisman; Turkoman

8. Plural of Compound Proper names –

Mr. Brown(1) Mr. Browns, (2) Messrs. Brown, (3) Messrs Browns
Miss Brown(1) Miss Browns, (2) Misses Brown, (3) Misses Browns

9. The plural of letters, and arithmetical figures is formed by adding an apostrophe (‘) and -s; as 5’s; 7’s; a’s; o’s; M.A.’s; cut your t’s and ot your i’s.

10. A few foreign words retain their original plurals –

axis-axes; basis-bases; crisis-crises; criterion-criteria; datum-data; erratum-errata; oasis-oases; thesis-theses; bandit-banditti; beau-beaux; fungus-fungi; medium-media; radius-radii; stimulus-stimuli; analysis-analyses; appendix-appendices; formula-formulae; hypothesis-hypotheses; memorandum-memoranda.

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Learn English Grammar 8

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Learn English Grammar

(Courtsey: Grammar by Shri D.N. Basu)

Everybody should learn English grammar as English grammar teaches us to speak and write the English language correctly.

The Noun (contd.)

Inflection of Nouns

Nouns are inflected for number, gender and case.

Number of Noun

Number is that form of the noun (or pronoun) which shows whether we mean one or more than one.

Note: Number is expressed by a difference in the form or the termination of a noun.

Nouns have two numbers – Singular Number and Plural Number.

The Singular Number denotes only one person or thing; as a man, a book.

The Plural Number denotes more than one person or thing; as men, books.

Rules for forming Plural

1. The Plural is generally formed by adding -s to the Singular; as pen-pens; boy-boys; eye-eyes.

2. Nouns ending in -o after a consonant -ch (soft), -i, -sh, -s, -ss, -x, or -z form the plural by adding -es to Singularal; as hero-heroes; church-churches; alkali-alkalies; bush-bushes; gas-gases; loss-losses; fox-foxes; topaz-topazes.

(a) But the following nouns ending in “-o” take only -s in the plural – canto, duodecimo, grotto, halo, junto, memento, octavo, piano, proviso, solo, trio.

“Calico”, “mosquito”, and “portico” take both -s and -es in the plural.

(b) Proper Nouns ending in “-o” form their plural by adding -s; as Cato-Catos; Cicero-Ciceros.

(c) When “-ch” has a hard sound lik “k” and “-o” is preceded by a vowel, the plural is formed by adding only -s; as, monarch-monarchs; folio-folios; studio-studios.

3. Nouns ending in -y after a consonant or “qu”, change -y into -ies in the plural; as body-bodies; lady-ladies; colloquy-colloquies.

(a) But when “-y” is preceded by a vowel, only -s is added to the Singular; as day-days; boy-boys; key-keys.

(b) Proper names do not usually change “-y”; as Henry-Henrys; Mary-Marys.

4. Nouns ending in -f or -fe changes -f or -fe into -ves in plural; as, leaf-leaves; life-lives.

(a) But the following nouns take only -s in the plural –
brief, chief, dwarf, fife, grief, gulf, handkerchief, hoof, mischief, proof, reef, foof, safe, serf, strife.

(b) Nouns ending in “ff” become plural by affixing -s only; as, cliff-cliffs; muff-muffs. “Staff” has both forms “staffs” and “staves” in the plural; but its compounds form their plural by adding -s only; as, flagstaff-flagstaffs; distaff-distaffs.

(Will be continued in next post)

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Learn English Grammar 7

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Learn English Grammar

(Courtsey: Grammar by Shri D.N. Basu)

Everybody should learn English grammar as English grammar teaches us to speak and write the English language correctly.

The Noun (contd.)

Proper Nouns become Common when they denote a class or one of the individuals of a class. They are then proceded by an Article, or “some”, “any” etc.; as ‘he is a Brahmin’; ‘the Agrawalas live here’; ‘some village Bhatagaon’.

A Common Noun becomes Proper when it points out a particualr person or thing. It is then preceded by an Adjective, generally the definite article; as the Strand; ‘God save the King’; ‘Our Father which art in heaven’.

Material Nouns become Common when they signify kinds, portions, or things made of them; as ‘a new grass has been discovered’; ‘he is throwing stones at the dog’; ‘she reads the papers (newspapers) regularly’.

Note: ‘Earth’ is a Material Noun when it denotes soil or a quantity of dust; as ‘earth was brought in boats to form a site’. It is Proper Noun when it means the planet we inhabit; as ‘the Earth is nearly round’.

Abstract Nouns become Common when they denote kinds, special instances, or acts; as ‘the colours of the rainbow are seven in number’; ‘the mechanical forces’.

Abstract Nouns becom Proper when they are personified; as ‘fair Science frowned not upon him’.

Note: When “proidence” means foresight, it is an Abstract Noun; but when it means God, it is a Proper Noun.

Substitutes for Nouns

1. Adjectives; as ‘wide will wear, but tight will tease’.
2. Pronouns; as ‘will you post this card for me?’
3. Verbs; as ‘toerr is human’; ‘he is fond of riding’.
4. Adverbs; as ‘since then’, ‘an eternal now ever lasts’.
5. Prepositions; as ‘the ins and outs of it are etc.’
6. Noun clause; as ‘that the sun is bright is known to all’.

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Learn English Grammar 6

Facebooktwittergoogle_plusredditpinterestlinkedinmail

Learn English Grammar

(Courtsey: Grammar by Shri D.N. Basu)

Everybody should learn English grammar as English grammar teaches us to speak and write the English language correctly.

The Noun

Five classes of Nouns

1. A Proper Noun is the name of a particular person, thing etc.; viz. –
(a) Person – Nanak, Chaitanya, Valmiki
(b) Places – Tajmahal, Delhi, buildings
(c) Branches of knowledge – Arithmetic, Botany
(d) Days, Months, Festivals – Wednesday, August, Diwali, Christmas, Id
(e) Diseases – Catarrh, Diarrhoea, Dyspepsia
(f) Languages – Hindi, Sanskrit, Engsish, Urdu
(g) Oceans, Seas, Lakes, Rivers, Mountains etc. – the Arctic, the Baltic, the Baikal, the Ganges, the Himalayas

2. A Common Noun is the name which can be given to each individual in the same class of things.
Examples – Man, horse; “Man” is the name which can be applied to every one of the class of men; so “man” is a Common Noun; “horse” is a Common Noun because it can be applied to any and every horse.

3. A Collective Noun is the name of a number or collection of persons or things of the same class considered as a whole and spoken of as one object.
Examples – Flock, army, party; “flock” is a collection of sheep, “army” is a collection of soldiers and “party” is of men; they cannot be used for one sheep, one soldier or one man. Hence they are Collective Nouns. So ‘the crowd was large’; ‘the army has started’; ‘the jury finds the prisoner guilty’.

4. A Material Noun denotes a substance or material considered as a single collection.
Examples – ‘Gold is precious’; here “gold” is the name for the entire collection of gold existing everywhere; hence “gold” is a Material Noun. So also silver, mud, tea, water, sugar, paper, cloud, salt, bread, soap, rice, dew, mist, butter, cotton, sand.

5. An Abstract Noun is the name of a quality, action or state of an object considered apart from the object itself; as goodness, health.
Examples – Every object has some qualities; thus ‘a man is honest and wise’; ‘a ball is round and hard’. If we separate or draw off thise qualities, viz. “honesty”, “wisdom”, “roundness” and “hardness”, and think of them apart from the objects themselves, the names of these qualities are Abstract Nouns.

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