Learn English Grammar 11
Learn English Grammar
(Courtsey: Grammar by Shri D.N. Basu)
Everybody should learn English grammar as English grammar teaches us to speak and write the English language correctly.
Gender of Noun (continued)
There are three ways of distinguishing the Gender.
1. By different Words.
|bachelor||maid, spinster||horse, stallion||mare|
|bull or ox||cow||man||woman|
|bollock, steer||heifer||milter (fish)||spawner|
|earl||countess||sire (a horse)||dam|
2. By different terminations
(i) The following are made Feminine by adding -ess to the Masculine form –
author, baron, count, giant, God, heir, host, jew, lion, mayor, patron, peer, poet, priest, prince, prior, prophet, shepherd, viscount
(ii) By adding -ess irregularly –
abbot – abb-ess; duke – duch-ess; emperor – empr-ess; governor – govern-ess; lad – lass; master (teacher) – mistr-ess; master (boy) – miss; Mr. – Mrs.; murderer – murder-ess; sorcerer – sorcer-ess.
(iii) by adding -ess after omitting the last vowel –
ambassador – ambassadr-ess; actor – actr-ess; beneractor – beneractr-ess; conductor – conductr-ess; director – directr-ess; hunter – huntr-ess; instructer – instructr-ess; negro – negr-ess; porter – portr-ess; protector – protectr-ess; songster – songstr-ess; tempter – temptr-ess; tiger – tigr-ess; traitor – tratr-ess.
(iv) By other endings –
administrator – administratrix; executor – executrix; prosecutor – prosecutrix; proprietor – proprietrix or proprietr-ess; hero – heroine; infant – infanta; sultan – sultana; fox – vixen.
3. By affixing or Prefixing a wrod.
(i) By affixing a word indicating male or female –
beggar-man – beggar woman; foster-father – foster-mother; god-father – god-mother; grand-father – grand-mother; land-lord – land-lady; milk-man – milk-maid; pea-cock – pea-hen; step-father – step-mother; step-son – step-daughter, washer-man – washer-woman.
(ii) By prefixing a word indicating male or female –
bull-calf – cow-calf; he-wolf – she-wolf; he-bear – she-bear; he-goat – she-goat; male-servant – female-servant.