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Learn English Grammar

(Courtsey: Grammar by Shri D.N. Basu)

Everybody should learn English grammar as English grammar teaches us to speak and write the English language correctly.

Case of Noun

Case is the form of a noun or a pronoun which showes its relation to some other word in a sentence.

1. The Nominative Case is the form of a word when it is the subject of a verb.

Examples – The Nominative Case is found by asking the question “who?” or “what?” before the verb. ‘Ram laughs’ – who laughs? – “Ram”; therefore “Ram” is in the Nominative Case. ‘The pen is lost’ – what is lost? – “the pen”; hence “pen” is in the Nominative Case. So ‘beggars have no right to be choosers’.

2. The Possessive Case is the form of a word when it is used with a noun and indicates possession.

Examples – The Possive Case can be found by asking the question “whose?”. ‘Gopal’s pencil’ – whose pencil? – “Gopal’s”; therefore “Gopal’s is in the Possessive Case. So ‘a man’s wealth may become his enemy’.

3. The Objective Case is the form of a word when it is governed by a transitive verb or a preposition.

Examples – The Objective Case is found by asking the question “whom?” or “what?” after the verb. ‘Karim beat Hari’ – whom did Karim beat? – “Hari”; hence “Hari” is in the Objective Case. ‘John buys a book’ – what does John buy? – “a book”; therefore “book” is in the Objective Case. So ‘a full purse never lacks friends’; ‘sit by Ram’.

Some Transitive verbs have two objects; as ‘give him an inch and he’ll take an ell’; ‘send me a book’; ‘make me a kite’. Objects of things, as “inch”, “book”, and “kite”, being directly affected by verbs “give”, “send” and “make”, are called Direct Objects; and objects of persons, as “him” and “me” being indirectly affected by those verbs, are called Indirect Objects (or Dative Cases).

4. The Vovative Case (or Nominative of Address) is the form of a noun when the person (or thing) is addressed.

Examples – The Vocative Case can be found by asking the question “who or what is addressed?”. ‘Come here, John’ – who is addressed? – “John”; hence “John” is in the Vocative Case. ‘Death, where is thy sting?’ – what is addressed? – “death”; so “death” is in the Vocative Case.

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